goiterjoe (Hive Addict)
02-17-02 00:32
No 270596
      Sodium Percarbonate in lieu of oxone  Bookmark   

I was wandering through wallyworld the other day when I came upon a stack of an oxygen-based cleaning agent -No Sources! in the store, and started looking at it.  people kept walking by and commenting how well the stuff cleans.  I looked up on it, and the substance is almost all sodium percarbonate.  I was wondering if this substance could be used in the same manner as oxone for ketone formation.  Has anyone experimented around with it, and if so what were your results? 

If Pacman had influenced us, we'd run around dark rooms eating pills and listen to repetitive music
(Master Searcher)
02-17-02 00:40
No 270604
      Re: Sodium Percarbonate in lieu of oxone  Bookmark   

I found some wood brightener in a store.  It says it contains disodium peroxydicarbonate.  I was wondering what it could be used for.  Maybe the Mn(III) reaction or making peracetic acid.
(Hive Bee)
02-17-02 00:45
No 270605
      Re: Sodium Percarbonate in lieu of oxone  Bookmark   

Well it looks like another one of them items not to buy at the same time along with other things at the one stop shop where the checkout kop is king.
(Chief Bee)
02-17-02 00:45
No 270606
      Re: Sodium Percarbonate in lieu of oxone  Bookmark   

I have an epoxidation/glycolization reference which uses sodium percarbonate somewhere... I'll get back to you when I've found it.
(Hive Addict)
02-17-02 02:39
No 270661
      Re: Sodium Percarbonate in lieu of oxone  Bookmark   

damn, talk about some response time!  Sodium Percarbonate based products are sold damn near everywhere now, so it's definitely something worth looking into.  I will search around some more and see what information I can find on it in the meantime until you find that article Rhodium.  Thanks.
(Hive Addict)
02-17-02 03:30
No 270680
      Re: Sodium Percarbonate in lieu of oxone  Bookmark   

Found this article, which seems to be of interest.

Org. Chem., 65 (13), 4210 -4212, 2000

Andrew R. Vaino*

Department of Chemistry and the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, California 92037

Received February 10, 2000

Since its introduction by the Herrmann group in 1991,1 the singularly efficient epoxidation of olefins using methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide has elicited much interest. MTO is of particular benefit for the epoxidation of notoriously unreactive monosubstituted olefins.2 One of the initial difficulties with the MTO-H2O2 reaction was decomposition of acid-sensitive epoxides exposed to the system's inherent acidity. This difficulty was addressed by the introduction of a substoichiometric amount of pyridine3 into the reaction mixture, which served not only to stabilize acid-susceptible epoxides, but also to enhance the rate of epoxidation. Subsequently, it was reported that either pyrazole (pz)4 or 3-cyanopyridine2,5 was superior as an accelerant.

In the MTO epoxidation, aqueous hydrogen peroxide is typically added dropwise to a dichloromethane solution of the olefin, accelerant, and MTO.3 Sources of the peroxide other than aqueous hydrogen peroxide, for example, urea-hydrogen peroxide adduct6 or bis(trimethylsilyl)peroxide,7 have been successfully applied to the MTO epoxidation. Sodium percarbonate (SPC), together with sodium perborate (SPB), represent two of the most powerful, yet underused, oxidants available.8 SPC and SPB are particularly advantageous owing to their ease of handling and storage. Epoxidation of ,-unsaturated ketones has been achieved using either SPC9 or SPB.10 In addition, there have been reports of epoxidation by SPB in the presence of acetic anhydride11 or acetic acid,12 or by SPC in the presence of trifluoroacetic anhydride.13 SPC has been used in chromium-catalyzed oxidation in organic solvents, although this method requires a phase-transfer catalyst.14

A means to combine the tremendous epoxidizing power of MTO with the mildness of either SPB or SPC was sought. SPB is known to exist as a hydrate of the disodium salt of a 1,4-diboratetroxane having discrete peroxo-boron bonds.15 An X-ray study of the crystal structure of SPC has revealed that H2O2 is found whole, encapsulated by hydrogen bonds in a Na2CO3 matrix.16 SPC is known to decompose both in water17 and in organic solvents18 to release H2O2, albeit very slowly. It was hypothesized that the use of an acid should aid in the release of H2O2 from both SPB and SPC. Upon addition of either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid to a mixture of SPC, pyrazole, cyclooctene, and MTO in THF a vibrant yellow color-characteristic of the peroxo-activated MTO species-was noted. After being stirred for 2 h, the TFA/SPC reaction resulted in complete conversion of the olefin to the epoxide, while the yield for the AcOH reaction was markedly lower. No reaction was observed when SPB was used as the oxygen source, nor was the distinct yellow color observed. In the absence of MTO no epoxide was formed, consistent with the inability of SPC to form peracids directly from organic acids.8a Inorganic acids, namely 4 N HCl in 1,4-dioxane or concentrated H2SO4 were tried in the reaction; no epoxide formation was noted.


A combination of 2.5 equiv of SPC, 2.5 equiv of TFA, 1 equiv of olefin, 12 mol % pyrazole, and 1 mol % MTO in either THF or CH2Cl2 was found to effectively convert a wide range of olefins to epoxides. The overall process is depicted in Scheme 1. Results are sumarized in Table 1. Using less than 2.5 equiv of SPC/TFA resulted in lower yields. Further, it was noted that addition of the MTO in two portions, the second addition approximately halfway through the reaction, improved the yield of epoxide.

As a peroxide source SPC in concert with TFA has some advantages over aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The slow trans-phasic interaction between SPC and the acid ensures the slow release of H2O2. In contrast to the aqueous H2O2 reaction no external cooling is required. Monitoring the pH of the reaction mixture19 revealed that while the pH was initially low, ca. 2.5, it rose to a constant value of 10.5 after 15 min.

A disadvantage of the present route is the requirement that TFA be used as the acid. As the acid neutralizes the SPC, it chips away at the carbonate sarcophagus in which the H2O2 is held (Figure 1). Thus, liberation of H2O2 is accompanied by formation of NaHCO3 together with carbonic acid (CO2 evolution is observed) and F3COONa. The sodium salts produced in this way will be negligibly soluble in organic solvents. Epoxidation of -methyl styrene was attempted using AcOH in place of TFA. While the characteristic yellow color of the activated rhenium species was indeed evident, at best 70% conversion of the olefin was observed. Of note is that the reaction with AcOH, either in CH2Cl2 or in THF, was much more difficult to stir, suggesting that the inorganic salts produced during the course of the reaction were interfering with the release of H2O2; a fairly common problem with solid phase reagents when the desired reaction with a component in solution produces a new solid phase which effectively covers the reactive surface, precluding further reaction. Fortuitously, this does not occur when F3COO-+Na is the new salt produced at the surface.

Of note in Table 1 is the ready epoxide formation with monosubstituted olefins (entries 6 and 7). For terminal olefins the use of CH2Cl2 as solvent afforded better yields. Both cis and trans olefins are readily epoxidized.

A novel means to harness the oxidizing power of sodium percarbonate, a so-called "solid form" of H2O2 has been demonstrated.16 The added safety and ease of handling using SPC, commonly employed as an additive in household washing detergent and toothpaste, in place of aqueous hydrogen peroxide, together with the slow release of the H2O2 due to the trans-phasic nature of its release from SPC render this a useful method.

Experimental Section
All compounds in Table 1 have been previously isolated and characterized.3,20

Typical Procedure. To a solution of cis-4-decene (1.8 mL, 10 mmol) in THF (7 mL) were added SPC (3.9 g, 25 mmol), pyrazole (82 mg, 1.2 mmol), and MTO (12.5 mg, 0.05 mmol). The mixture was stirred vigorously as TFA (1.9 mL, 25 mmol) was added dropwise over the course of 2 min. After addition of a few drops TFA, a vibrant yellow color was noted. After the mixture was stirred for an additional 3 h, a further aliquot of MTO (12.5 mg, 0.05 mmol) was added, and stirring was continued for 3 h. The mixture was introduced into a separatory funnel together with CH2Cl2 and water. The organic phase was removed, and the aqueous phase was further extracted with CH2Cl2. To the combined organic extracts was added a trace of MnO2 to decompose any remaining peroxide. The solution was dried over MgSO4 and filtered, and the solvent was removed under vacuum. Purification was achieved by Kugelrohr distillation to afford the product as a clear oil (1.49 g, 96%). For diolefins, twice the amounts of MTO, SPC, THF, and pyrazole were employed.

The National Institute of General Medical sciences, National Institutes of Health (GM-28384), the National Science Foundation (CHE-9531152), and the W. M. Keck Foundation are thanked for financial support to the Sharpless laboratory. Professor K. Barry Sharpless is warmly thanked for his support and insightful discussions. Dr. Bruce R. Bender is thanked for helpful discussions. Neal Read (Scripps) and Austin Chen (University of New Brunswick) are thanked for their meticulous review of the manuscript. NSERC (Canada) is thanked for financial support in the form of a postdoctoral fellowship.

1. Herrmann, W. A.; Fischer, R. W.; Marz, D. W. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 1991, 30, 1638.

2. Copéret, C.; Adolfsson, H.; Sharpless, K. B. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1997, 1565.

3. Rudolph, R.; Reddy, K. L.; Chiang, J. P.; Sharpless, K. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 6189.[Full text - ACS][ChemPort]

4. Herrmann, W. A.; Kratzer, R. M.; Ding, H.; Thiel, W. R.; Glas, H. J. Organomet. Chem. 1998, 555, 293.[ChemPort]

5. Adolfsson, H.; Converso, A.; Sharpless, K. B. Tetrahedron Lett. 1999, 40, 3991.[ChemPort]

6. Adam, W.; Mitchell, C. M. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 1996, 35, 533.[ChemPort]

7. Yudin, A. K.; Sharpless, K. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 11556.[Full text - ACS][ChemPort]

8. For reviews on SPB and SPC, see: (a) McKillop, A.; Sanderson, W. R. Tetrahedron 1995, 51, 6145.[ChemPort] (b) Muzart, J. Synthesis 1995, 1325.

9. Allen, J. V.; Drauz, K-.D.; Flood, R. W.; Roberts, S. M.; Skidmore, J. Tetrahedron Lett. 1999, 40, 5417.[ChemPort]

10. (a) Savizky, R. M.; Suzuki, N.; Bové, J. L. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 1998, 9, 3967.[ChemPort] (b) Straub, T. S. Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 36, 663.[ChemPort] Dehmlow, E. V.; Vehre, B. New J. Chem. 1989, 13, 117.

11. (a) Tao, F.-G.; Xu, L.-X.; Lu, Y.-Z.; Ma, S.-M.; Sun, G.-Z.; Xie, G.-Y. Acta Chim. Sinica Engl. Ed. 1989, 463.[ChemPort] (b) Xie, G.; Xu, L.; Hu, J.; Ma, S.; Hou, W.; Tao, F. Tetrahedron Lett. 1988, 29, 2967.[ChemPort]

12. Zarraga, M.; Zunza, H.; Perez, C.; Franco, C.; Miranda, A. Bol. Soc. Chil. Quím. 1998, 43, 213.

13. Kang, H.-J.; Jeon, H. S. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 1996, 17, 5.

14. Delaval, N.; Bouquillon, S.; Hénin, F.; Muzart, J. J. Chem. Res. Synop. 1999, 286 [ChemPort]and references therein.

15. (a) Hansson, A. Acta Chem. Scand. 1961, 15, 934. (b) Carrondo, M. A. A. de C. T.; Skapski, A. C. Acta Crystallogr. 1978, B34, 3551.[ChemPort]

16. de C. T. Carrondo, M. A. A.; Griffith, W. P.; Jones, D. P.; Skapski, A. C. J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1977, 2323.[ChemPort]

17. Galwey, A. K.; Hood, W. J. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1 1982, 78, 2815.[ChemPort]

18. Rocha Gonsalves, A. M. d'A; Johnstone, R. A. W.; Pereira, M. M.; Shaw, J. J. Chem. Res., Miniprint 1991, 2101.

19. Accurate monitoring of pH for nonaqueous systems is known to be fraught with difficulties; see, for example: Gold, V.; Grist, S. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2 1972, 89.[ChemPort] In the present study, 200 L aliquots were removed at 5 min intervals and diluted into 5 mL of H2O and the pH measured.

20. Swern, D. In Organic Peroxides; Swern, D., Ed.; Wiley: New York, 1970; Vol. 2, p 355.


If Pacman had influenced us, we'd run around dark rooms eating pills and listen to repetitive music
(Hive Addict)
02-18-02 22:18
No 271400
      Re: Sodium Percarbonate in lieu of oxone  Bookmark   

does anyone know what the name of the abbreviated journal in reference 12 is?  I can get any journal I want online, but I don't know the name of it.

12. Zarraga, M.; Zunza, H.; Perez, C.; Franco, C.; Miranda, A. Bol. Soc. Chil. Quím. 1998, 43, 213.

also, can anyone suggest a good free webspace site for me to upload files to?  I have several good articles I have found and want to share.

If Pacman had influenced us, we'd run around dark rooms eating pills and listen to repetitive music
(Chief Bee)
02-18-02 23:22
No 271429
      Re: Sodium Percarbonate in lieu of oxone  Bookmark   

Many people are using the yahoo briefcase accounts for sharing files with other bees.

Bol. Soc. Chil. Quím. is the Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Chile, but i guess it is pretty scare at most chem libraries.