malvaxman (Hive Bee)
09-28-02 17:48
No 361604
      Cl2 generator  Bookmark   

1) Is there a easy way to make a Cl2 generator with HCl as Cl-source.

2) What is the phaseequilibrum for I2 beween toluene and H2O

Thanx for your helptongue

(Official Hive Approximator)
09-28-02 17:56
No 361607
      ...  Bookmark   

2) what is that? iodine is practically insoluble in h2o and probably soluble in toluene if that's what you mean?

couch terrorist
(Hive Bee)
09-28-02 18:16
No 361614
      If I have to get KMnO4 I rather use NaClO and ...  Bookmark   

If I have to get KMnO4 I rather use NaClO and some acid.
Phaseeq. is the part of a compound that is disolved in each of 2 equely large phases.

Ex. If I put 100g of compound A in 1l Toluene together with 1l water. Then I take of the Toluene and evaporate it and find that 95g of the compuond was disolved in the toluene then the phaseeq. for compound A in Water/Toluene is 1/19. Iodine does infact disolve in water but I guess it does disolve about 500 times better in Toluene.

(Official Hive Approximator)
09-28-02 18:26
No 361617
      do you need an exact number?  Bookmark   

> I rather use NaClO and some acid.

would that produce O2 too?

> I guess it does disolve about 500 times better in Toluene.

do you need an exact number? or is much more soluble in toluene enough?

merck index says:

Total soly in water (25) 0.0013 moles / l [ie .165 g/l]; freely sol in aq solns of HI or iodides. Soly in organic solvents (g I2/100 g soln, 25): benzene 14.09; CS2 16.46; ethanol 21.43; ethyl ether 25.20; cyclohexane 2.719; CCl4 (35) 2.603.

so 500 times is not a bad guess.

couch terrorist
(Hive Adickt)
09-29-02 14:24
No 361927
      Clorine  Bookmark   

>ould that produce O2 too?

Adding HCl to KMnO4 is the only way, you can't get more than an 5% hypochorit solution.
I think the ratios of HCl and KMnO4 is listed in Vogel.
The messy MnO2 is removed with a solution of oxalic acid(50g/L) in 50% H2SO4
(Official Hive Translator)
09-29-02 15:51
No 361938
      Answers  Bookmark   

1) The one and only most-fuckin-superior way to make chlorine is from HCl and CaOCl2 (pool disinfectant or smth, can bee easily had OTC in seemingly any part of the world, including Africawink) No oxygen is generated whatsoever:

CaOCl2 + 2 HCl ---> CaCl2 + H2O + Cl2

2) You can also use MnO2 instead of KMnO4 - the former is easily extracted from common used batteries. In this case you usually need some heating as the rxn by itself is pretty sluggish.

3) All in all, making chlorine is absolutely no problem, but working w/it is a pain. Lubricate all non-glass parts of the apparatus w/parrafin or smth - it'll oxidize rubber on touch. Make sure there ain't no leaks. Dispose of the used flask's contents in a well ventilated area - otherwise you may have to experience a MAJOR discomfortsmile

4) Iodine will fully transgress into the non-polar layer.

Your thread - i can't resist to note thissmile - reminds me of that post where you asked some question and added a pic of beautiful female breasts so it would get more replieslaugh I can't find it now - probably it got deleted or something.

Have fun,

(Hive Prodigy)
09-29-02 21:15
No 361987
      That was MaDMAx  Bookmark   

MaDMAx did that if I am not mistaken.

Will perform sexual favors for females in exchange for 1,2-dimethylaziridine. PM for details.
(Official Hive Translator)
09-30-02 10:39
No 362282
      Woooooops.....  Bookmark   

My bad....blushblushblushblushblushblushblush I apologize.

That's why i couldn't find it, naturallysmile

(Hive Addict)
09-30-02 20:22
No 362380
      Yes that Ca(OCl)2 method is best one IMO.  Bookmark   

Yes that Ca(OCl)2 method is best one IMO.Chlorine is a nasty thing,yes,but sometimes ya have to use it(like toluene to benzyl chloride with UV).My rubber corks seem to resist chlorine(these are special ones for use in labs) and flourine plastic or whatever these white tubes are called seem to be ok too.And titan pipe doesn't seem to react with chlorine at 113C,so it should be good for introducing chlorine to boiling toluene.

A friend with speed is a friend indeed
(Hive Addict)
10-01-02 17:15
No 362754
      Hey antoncho,calcium hypochlorite is Ca(OCl)2 not ...  Bookmark   

Hey antoncho,calcium hypochlorite is Ca(OCl)2 not CaOCl2.Reaction goes like that:
Raf did some calculations and there must be at least 3 times as much conc. HCl than there is hypochlorite(w/w) for complete reaction.But the generator flask must be quite large to get some modest amounts of chlorine like 6 or 7 liter one.Ya can react about 1 kg of hypochlorite in 6 liter one and that should be sufficent for making 500 grams benzyl chloride if there's enough bright light or UV.

A friend with speed is a friend indeed
(Official Hive Translator)
10-02-02 13:07
No 363183
      Not quite  Bookmark   

... Raffike, if you notice - my post said CaOCl2, not Ca(OCl)2 - that's 'cause the usual hypochlorite contains the double salt - CaClOCl (mixed chloride-hypochlorite) - but the actual content of the 'spare' chlorine varies widely - in my xperience, the active chlorine content is always stated on the package, and it's pretty accurate, if it's fresh.

10-02-02 13:19
No 363189
      And...  Bookmark   

AFAIK, in general case, this rxn looks like:

CaOCl2 + HCl __> CaCl2 + HOCl
HOCl + HCl __> Cl2 + H2O

Wanna make laugh the GOD? - Tell him about your plans.
(Hive Addict)
10-02-02 19:01
No 363274
      Did some searching and one site said that calcium ...  Bookmark   

Did some searching and one site said that calcium hypochlorite is 3Ca(OCl)22Ca(OH)23H2O.Or as i said before,Ca(OCl)2. Wonder how much conc HCl acid would be needed per mole of HTH?
Anyway the source:

A friend with speed is a friend indeed
10-03-02 06:43
No 363547
      Safety warning  Bookmark   

I have noticed that chlorine gas seems to penetrate nitrile gloves. One time when I was handling a flask that was still jetting chlorine, while wearing nitrile gloves, my fingers got burned. Felt like acid burns. I suppose it was from the hydrolysis of chlorine gas, which must have passed through the nitrile gloves.

I also use chlorinated lime and hydrochloric acid for preparing chlorine gas.