|Ergot Alkaloids in microfungi||Bookmark|
Here is a list of known fungal sources of ergot alkaloids, in case something like this hasnt been posted here before.
Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones et Gams
Balansia claviceps Speg. (Black Crust)
Balansia epichloŽ (Weese) Diehl
Balansia henningsiana (MŲller) Diehl
Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle et de Milliano
Claviceps cynodontis Langdon (Bermuda Grass Ergot)
Claviceps fusiformis Loveless (Pennisetum Ergot)
Claviceps gigantea Futentes, de Lourdes, Ullstrup et Rodrigues
Claviceps imperatae Tanda et Kawatani (Blade Grass Ergot)
Claviceps litoralis Kawatani (Hama-garlic Ergot)
Claviceps microspora Tanda
Claviceps miscanthi Sawada
Claviceps paspali Stevens et Hall (Paspalum Ergot)
Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Rye Ergot)
Claviceps purpurea var. sasae Tanda (Bamboo Ergot)
EpichloŽ typhina (Pers. ex Fr.) Tul. (Choke)
Hypomyces aurantius Fckl. (Golden Hypomyces)
Penicillium aurantio-virens Biourge
Acremonium coenophialum contains ergine as well as ergovaline
(Porter, 1995) also with various clavine alkaloids such as
chanoclavine, agroclavine and penniclavine (Lyons et al., 1986).
An Acremonium sp. is known to induce an effect on horses eating
Sleeypygrass, Stipa robusta, and this Acremonium sp. has been
found to contain ergine, isoergine, ergonovine as well as
8-hydroxylsergic acid amide and chanoclavine (Petroski et al.,
1992). The only described species of Acremonium which is known to
infect the genus Stipa is A. chisosum which infects S. eminens.
Balansia claviceps contains ergonovine as well as chanoclavine
(Porter et al., 1979).
Balansia epichloe contains the psychoactive alkaloids ergonovine
and elymoclavine, along with other alkaloids such as agroclavine,
chanoclavine and penniclavine (Porter et al., 1979).
Balansia henningsiana contains ergonovine (Bacon et al., 1981)
Claviceps africana contains traces of the alkaloids elymoclavine
and agroclavine as well as several other clavine alkaloids
An ergot species, Claviceps strain 178 growing on Cynodon
dactylon was found to contain ergonovine and penniclavine (Porter
et al., 1974). Claviceps cynodontis is the only ergot species
known to infect the Cynodon genera.
C. fusiformis contains elymoclavine, lysergol as well as
agroclavine, penniclavine, lysergene and many other alkaloids
(Agurell & Ramstad, 1962). It is also the only ergot species
known to contain alkaloids in its honeydew (Kumar & Arya, 1978).
C. gigantea contains elymoclavine, agroclavine and other ergot
alkaloids (Agurell et al., 1963).
C. imperatae contains agroclavine, ergonovine and other ergot
alkaloids (Tanda & Kawatani, 1976).
C. litoralis, the ergot of Elymus mollis, is the richest source
of ergot alkaloids known in review by Tanda & Kawatani (1980)
which also mentions a paper which records ergonovine. Other
alkaloids of C. litoralis include elymoclavine and agroclavine
which were detected by Abe et al., (1955a), penniclavine and
triseclavine in Abe et al., (1955c), and lysergol as well as
lysergene in Abe et al., (1961). However it possible that
confusion can arise with C. purpurea as both species parasitise
C. microspora contains elymoclavine agroclavine and several
water-insoluble ergot alkaloids (Abe et al., 1955b).
C. miscanthi contains elymoclavine, ergonovine, agroclavine and
several water-insoluble ergot alkaloids (Tanda, 1991).
C. paspali submerged cultures have ergine, isoergine and lysergic
acid N-1-hydroxyethylamide (Arcamone et al., 1960) while
sclerotia from Australia contain up to 0.005% alkaloids composed
of ergine and ergonovine along with chanoclavine and two
unidentified ergoline alkaloids (Groger et al., 1961).
Elymoclavine (Kobel et al., 1964) and agroclavine (Brar et al.,
1968) have also been recorded.
C. purpurea is the most extensively studied of the ergots and has
been shown to produce a wide range of ergot alkaloids. Many
reviews of its chemistry/pharmacology exist including Willaman &
Hui-Lin (1970) and Parbery (in prep.). Lysergine is recorded by
Abe et al. (1961).
C. purpurea var. sasae, is different enough in morphology and
host range from C. purpurea to be considered a separate species
in the genus Claviceps. It contains elymoclavine, ergonovine and
agroclavine (Tanda, 1973a).
C. sorghi Kulkarni et al. is known to contain traces of the
suspected psychoactive alkaloid agroclavine in cultured media
(Frederickson et al., 1991).
Epichloe typhina has been found to contain the psychoactive
ergoline alkaloid elymoclavine along with penniclavine,
agroclavine, festuclavine, ergovaline and ergovalinine (Porter et
Hypomyces aurantius is known to contain the psychoactive alkaloid
elymoclavine with two other clavine-type ergot alkaloids
agroclavine and chanoclavine and two peptide-type ergot alkaloids
(Yamatodani & Yamamoto, 1983).
Aspergillus fumigatus in the Fungi Imperfecti contains
elymoclavine and agroclavine along with alkaloids of unknown
activity such as chanoclavine (Yamano et al., 1962) and
festuclavine (Spilsbury & Wilkinson, 1961).
Penicillium aurantio-virens contains penniclavine and agroclavine
(Solov'eva et al., 1995).
heres a chart showing which alkaloids the various species contains.
these expland a little on lycaeums lists.