sean1234 (Newbee)
03-16-03 05:17
No 417484
      Ergot Alkaloids in microfungi  Bookmark   

Here is a list of known fungal sources of ergot alkaloids, in case something like this hasnt been posted here before.

The Fungi


          Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones et Gams
          Acremonium sp.

          Balansia claviceps Speg. (Black Crust)
          Balansia epichloŽ (Weese) Diehl
          Balansia henningsiana (MŲller) Diehl

          Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle et de Milliano
          Claviceps cynodontis Langdon (Bermuda Grass Ergot)
          Claviceps fusiformis Loveless (Pennisetum Ergot)
          Claviceps gigantea Futentes, de Lourdes, Ullstrup et Rodrigues
          (Maize Ergot)
          Claviceps imperatae Tanda et Kawatani (Blade Grass Ergot)
          Claviceps litoralis Kawatani (Hama-garlic Ergot)
          Claviceps microspora Tanda
          Claviceps miscanthi Sawada
          Claviceps paspali Stevens et Hall (Paspalum Ergot)
          Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Rye Ergot)
          Claviceps purpurea var. sasae Tanda (Bamboo Ergot)

          EpichloŽ typhina (Pers. ex Fr.) Tul. (Choke)


          Hypomyces aurantius Fckl. (Golden Hypomyces)


          Aspergillus fumigatus

          Penicillium aurantio-virens Biourge

          Acremonium coenophialum contains ergine as well as ergovaline
          (Porter, 1995) also with various clavine alkaloids such as
          chanoclavine, agroclavine and penniclavine (Lyons et al., 1986).

          An Acremonium sp. is known to induce an effect on horses eating
          Sleeypygrass, Stipa robusta, and this Acremonium sp. has been
          found to contain ergine, isoergine, ergonovine as well as
          8-hydroxylsergic acid amide and chanoclavine (Petroski et al.,
          1992). The only described species of Acremonium which is known to
          infect the genus Stipa is A. chisosum which infects S. eminens.

          Balansia claviceps contains ergonovine as well as chanoclavine
          (Porter et al., 1979).

          Balansia epichloe contains the psychoactive alkaloids ergonovine
          and elymoclavine, along with other alkaloids such as agroclavine,
          chanoclavine and penniclavine (Porter et al., 1979).

          Balansia henningsiana contains ergonovine (Bacon et al., 1981)

          Claviceps africana contains traces of the alkaloids elymoclavine
          and agroclavine as well as several other clavine alkaloids
          (Mantle, 1968).

          An ergot species, Claviceps strain 178 growing on Cynodon
          dactylon was found to contain ergonovine and penniclavine (Porter
          et al., 1974). Claviceps cynodontis is the only ergot species
          known to infect the Cynodon genera.

          C. fusiformis contains elymoclavine, lysergol as well as
          agroclavine, penniclavine, lysergene and many other alkaloids
          (Agurell & Ramstad, 1962). It is also the only ergot species
          known to contain alkaloids in its honeydew (Kumar & Arya, 1978).

          C. gigantea contains elymoclavine, agroclavine and other ergot
          alkaloids (Agurell et al., 1963).

          C. imperatae contains agroclavine, ergonovine and other ergot
          alkaloids (Tanda & Kawatani, 1976).

          C. litoralis, the ergot of Elymus mollis, is the richest source
          of ergot alkaloids known in review by Tanda & Kawatani (1980)
          which also mentions a paper which records ergonovine. Other
          alkaloids of C. litoralis include elymoclavine and agroclavine
          which were detected by Abe et al., (1955a), penniclavine and
          triseclavine in Abe et al., (1955c), and lysergol as well as
          lysergene in Abe et al., (1961). However it possible that
          confusion can arise with C. purpurea as both species parasitise
          E. mollis.

          C. microspora contains elymoclavine agroclavine and several
          water-insoluble ergot alkaloids (Abe et al., 1955b).

          C. miscanthi contains elymoclavine, ergonovine, agroclavine and
          several water-insoluble ergot alkaloids (Tanda, 1991).

          C. paspali submerged cultures have ergine, isoergine and lysergic
          acid N-1-hydroxyethylamide (Arcamone et al., 1960) while
          sclerotia from Australia contain up to 0.005% alkaloids composed
          of ergine and ergonovine along with chanoclavine and two
          unidentified ergoline alkaloids (Groger et al., 1961).
          Elymoclavine (Kobel et al., 1964) and agroclavine (Brar et al.,
          1968) have also been recorded.

          C. purpurea is the most extensively studied of the ergots and has
          been shown to produce a wide range of ergot alkaloids. Many
          reviews of its chemistry/pharmacology exist including Willaman &
Hui-Lin (1970) and Parbery (in prep.). Lysergine is recorded by
          Abe et al. (1961).

          C. purpurea var. sasae, is different enough in morphology and
          host range from C. purpurea to be considered a separate species
          in the genus Claviceps. It contains elymoclavine, ergonovine and
          agroclavine (Tanda, 1973a).

          C. sorghi Kulkarni et al. is known to contain traces of the
          suspected psychoactive alkaloid agroclavine in cultured media
          (Frederickson et al., 1991).

          Epichloe typhina has been found to contain the psychoactive
          ergoline alkaloid elymoclavine along with penniclavine,
          agroclavine, festuclavine, ergovaline and ergovalinine (Porter et
          al., 1981).

          Hypomyces aurantius is known to contain the psychoactive alkaloid
          elymoclavine with two other clavine-type ergot alkaloids
          agroclavine and chanoclavine and two peptide-type ergot alkaloids
          (Yamatodani & Yamamoto, 1983).

          Aspergillus fumigatus in the Fungi Imperfecti contains
          elymoclavine and agroclavine along with alkaloids of unknown
          activity such as chanoclavine (Yamano et al., 1962) and
          festuclavine (Spilsbury & Wilkinson, 1961).

          Penicillium aurantio-virens contains penniclavine and agroclavine
          (Solov'eva et al., 1995).

heres a chart showing which alkaloids the various species contains.

these expland a little on lycaeums lists.